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Case Study and Proposal – Part 1 (3)

The Legacy Education Network in Tanzania

The Legacy Education Network (LEN) is an organization that is located in Arusha, Tanzania. The founder of Legacy Education Network could not ignore the rapid need of sensitizing teachers on the modern teaching and learning methods. Thus the Legacy Education Network was founded and thus it is a small educational teachers’ resource centre offering humanitarian assistance and catering for the needs of the teachers who are highly in need of improving their careers to match with the modern standards of delivering contents in learning environment. It has been a long cherished dream of a few educationists and social activists to conceive and bring forth, a resource center, which will pave way to sustainable Educational Development in both the rural and urban sector.


How the problem is related to the purpose of the Legacy Network organization

The host organization of the program is The Legacy Education Network. The goal of this organization is to improve the quality of teaching in Tanzania by promoting modern teaching methodologies in Tanzania teaching and learning environment and improving the ways in which activities are undertaken in Tanzanian schools. It is on this ground therefore that the program of sensitizing teachers on the modern teaching and learning methods will come in handy. By the help of highly trained professionals and well-designed appropriate technology, the program will offer the service that most schools have always been longing for.
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Teaching & Supporting 
the Professionals of tomorrow

Montessori Education before birth and in the first year

Education starts already in the womb, before birth but especially the first 6 years after birth can be seen as very essential and determining for the success of a child in life. In a prepared surrounding like it is enforced by the Montessori Method children are able to build up self-esteem and self-motivation which are the base for sustainability in life and a happiness and willingness in a life long learning experience.

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Montessori in Early Childhood Education - aged 1 - 6 years

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Montessori for Elementary Students - aged 6 - 12 years

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Erdkinder - Montessori in Adolescense - aged 12 - 18 years

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Montessori Education for a positive Parenthood & Work

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Montessori for Dementia, Alzheimers and Aging

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The teaching methodology varies from one level of education to another within Tanzania system of education. The current situation is therefore described under the following subtitles:

Primary level of education

The schools’ environment is un-conducive in terms of insufficient textbooks, furniture and classrooms. Classrooms are so overcrowded that no personal attention is paid to a pupil, poor teaching pedagogue is used, unpleasant punishments and harassment of pupils, including sexual harassment, which is common (Rajani, 2001; Chacha and Zhong, 2013). The result of these conditions are worse because a lot of children drop out of primary school and those that last for the seven years, approximately 80% fail the final examination. For instance, in 1999, 80% failed and in 2002, 73% failed (URT, 2004). Those who do not pass the exam and cannot afford private school must simply end their education.


Secondary level of education

Secondary school is divided into ordinary, Form 1-4, and advanced, Form 5-6 and is taught in English. In some cases, this instruction in English creates a barrier if students who did not get good training at the primary school level. Although the conditions are still harsh in secondary boarding schools with few school supplies, books and long hours in class and requirements to perform chores such as cutting grass and collecting firewood, they are preferred over day schools. Secondary day schools  require the students to do homework in unsuitable conditions at home and travel a great distance to get to school and back which is extremely dangerous, especially for the girls, who will often be “attacked and abused” on the way to school.  For this reason many girls do not continue their education in secondary school (Asante Sana for Education, 2014).

The common characteristic of secondary schools in Tanzania is teachers’ inefficiency. An ineffective teacher is a disgrace to the teaching profession. The inefficiency in most Tanzanian secondary schools may be caused by individual teacher characteristics such intellectual capacity, inadequate training, and resistance to modern pedagogical methods, or poor attitude about the teaching profession and a lack of dedication to professional duties (Hakielimu, 2008). The teacher ineffectiveness in secondary schools is further accelerated by classroom environment such as lack of necessary teaching and learning materials and large number of pupils in one classroom.

Many schools do not have computers, putting them at a disadvantage in keeping up with technology. Currently there is a severe shortage of teachers in Tanzania and they are not paid well enough to sustain a decent lifestyle. At an average salaryof $150.00 to $300.00 per month, it is difficult to hire and retain good teachers.


Advanced level of education

Students  who pass form four exams may move onto Advanced Secondary School which are mostly boarding schools and more expensive.  The exam results dictate the school the student may attend which is chosen by the government.  Students who pass form 6 (division 1 being the highest and division 4 the lowest) may continue onto University. The government assigns the university for the student and may provide loan of 75% of the tuition for those with either division 1 results or pursuing science related courses.  Students who fail form 4 or form 6 exams may go onto an Advanced Vocational School and can train to be a head primary School teacher among other things (Asante Sana for Education, 2014). Also, less than one half of one percent (.27%) of students in Tanzania goes on to university!



Those attending regular primary schools in rural areas normally lack books, teaching aids, and are schooled in dilapidated teaching environment. Furthermore, they have teachers who are ill-prepared to teach the subjects that are assigned to them to teach. Furthermore, there are no professional development opportunity for the teachers to engage in professional learning and development. Professional development activities that will enhance proficiency in their teaching, teaching methods, the proper medium of instruction, and finally, mastery of content are all lacking (Fundi, 2013).

Learning activities used in most classrooms do not reflect the interests of children. Teachers still use teaching strategies that are outdated, non-engaging and based on memorization to teach children whose attention spans have changed over the years. When in the classroom, most teachers teach using rote techniques – requiring pupils to copy or repeat notes on the board. Violence, gender discrimination and at times abuse continue to take place regularly. Lecturing for hours without interactive activities, hands-on-activities and experiential learning activities; that features in most schools, do not benefit the students.The non-interactive lessons and lessons that don’t address children brain development theories, motivation theories, cognitive theories, and expect our children to learn, should be brought to standstill. In addition, teacher absenteeism, lack of classroom resources and pathetic salaries contribute to the described failures (Fundi, 2013).

In short, action is needed in three key areas regarding teachers: improved teacher training and support, better understanding and enforcement of standards and ethics, and basic guarantees regarding teacher pay and welfare (Sumra and Rajani, 2006).



The poor command of English of both teachers and students is a major reason for academic under-achievement in secondary schools. Students start studying in English without proper preparation and are taught by teachers who in many cases have a low level of proficiency in English. The number of private schools is growing and affluent families send their offspring into these schools that use English as the medium of instruction already in primary schools. Unfortunately these schools are hardly better – their teachers are often not able to use English properly or lack teacher training altogether. The poor result is caused by different factors such as laziness of students, lack of support from parents, lack of trained teachers for new competence curriculum, and lack of student motivation as well as student dropout rates and globalization. There is also no uniformity of textbooks which abide the new competence curriculum as well as training of teachers so as to have experience of the new competence-based curriculum which has been used in the format of examination Notwithstanding the above causes of the problems, there are several factors, which contribute to the failure of form four students. These are related to inconformity between numbers of teachers versus students, poor quality of textbooks, poor products of pupils joining secondary schools, absence of reliable teachers guide, and absence of action based exams, absence of labs, among others. The second set are factors related to the administration of education, which include decision of removing standard four and form two exams, decision to liberate textbooks used in the entire cadre of primary and secondary education among others (King, 2013).


Target setting in Tanzania, as elsewhere, suffers from two major problems. It is focused on quantitative aspects and on inputs. In this there is disconnection between the ‘promise’ of education, or expectations of it, and its conceptualization. Education is expected to produce graduates who are able to thrive in a fast changing world, meet challenges and solve problems, be entrepreneurial and create jobs, and be critical and active citizens. Yet targets rarely focus on these sorts of outcomes of education, and methods of measurement do not measure these sorts of skills and attributes. The recent rapid expansion of both primary and secondary education has inevitably affected quality. The tension between quantity and quality in education is well known. But it is mistaken to plan to take the view ‘let us take care of quantity and enrolments first, and worry about the rest or quality later’. Importantly, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG)argues that both access and improvements in learning outcomes need to be addressed together. Countries need to resist the temptation access first and improve learning outcomes Curiously, recent developments notwithstanding, policy attention and implementation in Tanzania continue to equate education progress with the erection of school buildings. Buildings are of course important, but teachers matter more. When you cannot have everything and trade-offs need to be made, priority should be given to teachers over buildings. Many will agree that the most important thing in education is the interaction between motivated, competent teachers and their students. Currently, basic competence is defined in terms of formalistic certification based on passing examinations that rarely measure the attributes of an effective teacher. Instead measurement should be based on a balance of subject knowledge and pedagogical skills, with an emphasis on measuring whether teachers have the ability to inspire students to learn (Sumra and Rajani, 2006).

Girl child

The context of this trend is that expectations for early marriage and pregnancy prevent girls from making the transition. In 2014, quarters of 15-19-year-old Tanzanian girls were pregnant or had given birth, and a third of all girls were married by the age of 18. In 2016, almost 3,700 girls dropped out of primary and secondary education due to adolescent pregnancy; it is, however, suspected that this is a “vast underestimate”.These issues also disproportionately affect girls from less advantaged backgrounds, who are twice as likely to be married at an early age as girls from middle- to higher-income homes. Girls from poor families are also less likely to re-enter education through vocational training or private tuition, which most cannot afford (Wilson, 2018)

Children with disabilities

Students with a mental or physical impairment also fare badly. Whilst it is estimated that 7.9% of Tanzanians are living with a disability, less than 1% of children in school have one. In Tanzania, there is currently no system for the identification or assessment of children with disabilities, or means of responding to their needs. For those students who do enroll, attendance is irregular. These students also face a higher risk of abuse (Wilson, 2018).


The youth graduates

Youth unemployment in Tanzania is estimated at between 10-15% and observers have commentated that universities could do more to adequately prepare students for the demands of the 21st century workplace. One of the common explanations for why students are struggling to succeed in the job market is that there is a disparity between what is taught in schools and universities and the skills now demanded by the job market.Proactive, skills-based learning techniques should be promoted over outdated practices such as rote-memorization, at all levels of the Education system. This is because employers are now seeking graduates who are entrepreneurially-minded, have analytical and problem-solving capabilities, and can successfully integrate into rapidly-changing working environments (Wilson, 2018)


It is the dream of a very parent that when he/she is investing in the education of his/her child that the investment pays dividend. This may not necessarily be the case for Tanzanian parents. Upon completing the secondary school level of education, most children go back to the parents for daily provisions in form of food, shelter and clothing. Lucky are parents whose children will find a meaning activity to generate income. But as it is now these children end being wasted by taking hard drugs, joining hard core thugs or just to hang around.


The government

A government which has a large number of populations with little education, weak education background or no education at all has to spend a lot of money to protect the welfare of its people. Upon realizing that the majority of its people cannot compete with the rest of the world for few job opportunities, Tanzanian government spends a lot of time in formulating laws and regulations that can create barriers in recruiting foreigners for available job opportunities. Besides, the government recruits a number of migration officers to ensure that foreigners to do access the available job opportunities.


In the short, most students will depict low academic passes, something that will never enable them to forge ahead in academic realm. Besides, mass academic failures means that the people do not adequately compete for the available job markets hence the leaving them in despair. Whereas in the long run the country will have the majority of population who are ‘learned fools’ meaning that they will only survive in an environment with restrict protective measures for the available job opportunities. Since the affluent families do not take their children in the public schools, there is also chances that two distinctive classes are going to emerge in Tanzania; those with better education background, who will take it all and those with worse education background who will be there to serve those in leadership positions.



The first target community is The Legacy Education Network, the organization which will be responsible for providing overall coordination of program, technical support, and assisting the rest of target groups to form/strengthen educational core groups,providing technical support and human resources in terms of training team. The host organization will also be responsible for monitoring and evaluating progress of the program and preparing and submitting annual progress reports to partners, District Council and Division education office. The second target group will be District education officer. This officer will be responsible for supporting the program, authorizing division education officers to organize teachers according to their respective zones. He/she will also attend workshops and meetings, will seek approval of the program at the Regional level, involved in the implementing program/enforcing implementation of program and hosting facilitation team during the process. The District Education officer will also be involved in reviewing the plan of the program and approving when appropriate and providing by-laws governing education activities in the district. The third target group will be the divisional education officers. These officers will be responsible supporting the program, organizing the schools into specific zones, conducting awareness raising workshop and organizing meetings with the headmasters/teachers. The fourth target group will be the headmasters/head teachers who will be responsible for supporting the program, organizing meeting with their respective teachers and conducting awareness campaign for the program. Finally, the fifth group will be the teachers who will be drawn from both the public and private schools within the District Council. Their role in the program will be to attend the seminars, workshops and training regarding the 21st century teaching methodology. Teachers will also be involved in implementing the new teaching techniques and collecting the detailed data on the possible changes in the results of the students.
This section provides detailed realistic program goal that will address directly the problem statement.


The program goal is to sensitize teachers on the modern teaching and learning methods as a way of improving the quality of education by increasing academic performance of students.


The program is highly desired because of passing through the following selection criteria: It is within economic possibility; it is something that can change teachers’ capacity and increase efficiency and effectiveness in teaching activities; it is realistic given the available resources; achievable given the time frame; fits in the education norms and plans of local government; culturally appropriate; within different donors mission; not already being done by someone else; measurable; focused in improving academic productivity and increasing the incomes of the beneficiaries.


The objectives are set in accordance with the goal of the program. For the goal of sensitizing teachers on the modern teaching and learning methods as a way of improving the quality of education by increasing academic performance of students, there are three specific objectives that were to be fulfilled as follows:

  1. To build local community capacity through training 120 teachers by enhancing the teaching status, morale and professionalism by 2023
  2. To establish a well-equipped education centre with the relevant technology to promote a competitive edge in a fast paced globalizing world by 2023
  3. To facilitate the global sustainable education network by 2023.


The host organization of the program is The Legacy Education Network, a local Non-profit and Non-Governmental Organization. The organization’s Headquarter is at Usa River, Meru District of Arusha Region, Tanzania.


Administration and legal factors

The host organization will conduct its activities in the Meru district council. Under the authority of the district council, the Meru District education officer will be responsible for supporting the program, authorizing division education officers to organize teachers according to their respective zones. He/she will also attend workshops and meetings, will seek approval of the program at the Regional level, involved in the implementing program/enforcing implementation of program and hosting facilitation team during the process. The District Education officer will also be involved in reviewing the plan of the program and approving when appropriate and providing by-laws governing education activities in the district.

Political and economic factors

In trying to seek political acceptance of the program established by The Legacy Education Network, the political leaders such as parliamentarian and the ward councilor will be served with letters indicating the intention of the host organization. Meru district council education officer, Usa River ward councilor and a representative of member of parliament’s office also will be invited to attend the workshop. There is no doubt the politicians will therefore, want to identify with theprogram in order to increase their popularities. So the stable political environment and government laws and policies will be the impetus in the success of host organization’s activities. Economically, the program will serve as a source of income to four full time employees of The Legacy Education Network. These will be the security guard, Accounts clerk, cleaner/tea girl/gardener and secretary/receptionist. The total income for the four employees will be US$ 17,217.4 in a year. In addition to that, there will be some activities within the program that will also increase the income of the respective persons that will participate in them. For instance, the four trainers will heavily draw their allowances from the program up to the tune of US$ 8,348 for the first two of the existence of the program. Others who will benefit directly are the LEN Director, program coordinator, District Education officer, Headmsters/head teachers and the teacher trainees.

Social and Cultural factors

On social aspect, the program will serve as mechanism for mobilizing the community into one course; improving the education status of the community. The community will therefore develop the feeling of unity than before. This therefore improves the community’s social capital. Cultural factors will also be in the forefront of the host organization when establishing the program.Such factors will include the people’s attitude towards education management. However, the main threat in this regard is moral degradation which is rapidly affecting the community.



These are the Institutional factors which affect the development of host organization. These factors include:

Legacy Education Network Vision

The vision of Legacy Education Network is to transform the society through a holistic form of education involving spiritual, mental and physical that will see the Centre growing into a sphere of hope to the hopeless.

Legacy Education Network Mission

The mission of Legacy Education Network is to bring out the potential skills and knowledge among people, to be used in our country and the world at large in order to quench the thirst for Modern Education in the children for a better tomorrow.

Leadership structure

The control of The Legacy Education Network will be vested in the hands of the executive and central committee. Executive committee is the body which will have authority over the constitution and by-laws,review the overall objectives and exercise the general membership functions of The Legacy Education Network.The responsibilities of the Executive committee are: approving appointments to the central committee, approving constitution and membership policies, reviewing the yearly achievements and contributing to the design of the plan for the following year. Central Committee will be the next high ranking body in The Legacy Education Network. It will consist of the Divisional Education officer, Headmasters and Teachers’ representative from each participating school. The central committee at its discretion from time to time, elects distinguished personalities to be patrons/matrons of the program shall be in position for three years.

Human and financial sources

The Legacy Education Network will draw most of its workers from the local community. The recruitment of personnel will be carefully done in order to avoid compromising the standard. The majority of the workers will be temporary employees who will be recruited when the need arises particularly when there shall be a new program to be undertaken. However, The Legacy Education Network will have permanent employees such as National director, general secretary, treasurer, program coordinator and office attendants (Secretary/receptionist, cleaner/gardener/tea person and security officer.

The financial sources of The Legacy Education Network will be the program donors who will include but not limited to Meru District council, the well-wisher and Director’s personal contribution.

Assessment of performance

The hosting organization has the responsibility of providing overall coordination of the program, providing technical support and assisting community to form/strengthen education core groups.



To promote their mission, The Legacy Education Network will collaborate and network with government ministries, local NGOs, external NGOs and any other skilled individuals who may be of use with goodwill in furtherance of the aims and objectives of the organization. The host organization will cooperate/network as fully as possible with existing program committee, program partners, other NGOs and government leaders. Their purpose in such cooperation is that people and areas in need may be more effectively and more efficiently served, and that the entire recourses available for humanitarian aid and educational actions should be used with minimum or without waste and duplication of effort. It will Endeavour as far as possible to work in a manner that is parallel with or supplementing to national education development policies and objectives in program areas.